A direct system is a heating system where the heat emitters are directly connected to a boiler or district heating system. This means, that the district heating water is supplied directly to the consumer’s radiators or other heat surfaces.
A discharge de-superheater can be used in a cooling plant to produce domestic hot water. This is possible when there is a simultaneous demand for both cooling and hot domestic water in the building.
Discharge flow is the assumed flow from discharge units. Normally, it refers to the flow entering a pumping station. It is typically expressed in litres per second or cubic metres per hour.
Disinfection is one of the most important processes in water treatment. This step eliminates microorganisms in drinking and process water to ensure safe water use according to relevant regulations and directives.
Disinfection is an essential step in a water treatment process. Depending on the method and water quality, different by-products are generated which could affect the final water quality.
District heating describes a water-based heating system where there is a considerable distance between the place the heat is generated (power plant) and the place the heat is used (the building).
Downtime costs / loss of production (Cs)
The measurable cost of a pump stoppage is modest seen over its lifetime in a commercial building. However the comfort loss to building users makes a stand-by pump advisable.
Drinking water regulations
Disinfection is an essential step in any water treatment process. Most countries have specific guidelines or regulations, which describe the allowed methods and concentrations in the treated water.